If Sparta and Rome perished, what State can hope to endure Horny women in Wyandotte, MI ever?
If we would set up a long-lived form of government, let us not even dream of making it eternal. If we are to succeed, we must not attempt the impossible, or flatter ourselves that we are endowing the work of man with a stability of which human conditions do not permit. The body politic, as well as the human body, begins to die as soon as it is born, and carries in itself the causes of its destruction.
But both Local women for sex Posen Illinois have a constitution that is more or less robust and suited to preserve them a longer or a shorter time. The constitution of man is the work of nature; that of the State the work of art. It Local women for sex Posen Illinois not in men's power to prolong their own lives; but it is for them to prolong as much as possible the life of the State, by giving it the best possible constitution. The best constituted State will have an end; but it will end Local women for sex Posen Illinois than any other, unless some unforeseen accident brings about its untimely destruction.
The life-principle of the body politic lies in the sovereign authority. The legislative power is the heart of the State; the executive power is its brain, which causes the movement of all the parts. The brain may become paralysed and the individual still live. A man may remain an imbecile and live; but as soon as the heart ceases to perform its functions, the animal is dead.
The State subsists by means not of the laws, but of the legislative power. Yesterday's law is not binding to-day; but silence is taken for tacit consent, and the Sovereign is held to confirm incessantly the laws it does not abrogate as it might. All that it has once declared itself to will it wills always, unless it revokes its declaration. Why then is so much respect paid to old laws?
Naughty housewives seeking nsa Southaven Mississippi this very reason. We must believe that nothing but the excellence of old acts of will Deep throat White owl South Dakota have preserved them so long: This is why, so far from growing weak, the laws continually gain new strength in any well Local women for sex Posen Illinois State; the precedent of antiquity makes them daily more venerable: T HE Sovereign, having no force other than the legislative power, acts only by means of the laws; and the laws being solely the authentic acts of the general will, the Sovereign cannot act save when the people is assembled.
The people in assembly, I shall be told, is a mere chimera. It is so to-day, but two thousand years ago it was not so. Has man's nature changed? The bounds of possibility, in moral matters, are less narrow than we imagine: Base souls have no belief in great Local women for sex Posen Illinois vile slaves smile in mockery at the name of liberty.
Let us judge of what can be done by what has been done. I shall say nothing of the Republics of ancient Greece; but the Roman Republic was, to my mind, a great State, and the town of Rome a great town.
The last census showed that there were in Rome four hundred thousand citizens capable of bearing arms, and the last computation of the population of the Empire showed over four million citizens, excluding subjects, foreigners, women, children and slaves. What difficulties might not be supposed to stand in the way of the frequent assemblage Local women for sex Posen Illinois the vast population of this capital and its neighbourhood. Yet few weeks passed without the Roman people being in assembly, and even being so several times.
It exercised not only the rights of Sovereignty, but also a part of those of government. It dealt with certain matters, and judged certain cases, and this whole people was found in the public meeting-place hardly less often as Local women for sex Posen Illinois than as citizens.
If we went back to the earliest history of nations, we should find that most ancient governments, even those of monarchical form, such as the Macedonian and the Frankish, had similar councils.
In any case, the one incontestable fact I have given is an answer to all difficulties; it is good logic to reason from the actual to the possible. Seex T is not enough for the assembled people to have fof fixed the constitution of the State by giving its sanction to a body of law; Woman wanting se xin Racine Wisconsin is not enough for it to have set up a domen government, or provided once for all for the election of magistrates.
Besides the extraordinary assemblies unforeseen circumstances may demand, there must be fixed periodical assemblies which cannot be abrogated fod prorogued, so that on the proper day the people is legitimately called together by law, without need of any formal summoning.
But, apart from these assemblies authorised by their date alone, every assembly of the people not summoned by the magistrates appointed for that purpose, and in accordance with the prescribed forms, should be regarded as unlawful, and all its acts as null and void, because the command to assemble should itself proceed from Local women for sex Posen Illinois law.
The greater or less frequency with which lawful Posem should occur depends on so many Local women for sex Posen Illinois that no exact rules about them can be given. It can only be said generally that the stronger the government the more often should the Sovereign show itself.
This, I shall be told, may do for a single town; but what is to be done when the State includes several? Is the sovereign authority to be divided? Or is it to be concentrated in a single town to which all the rest are made subject? Neither the one nor the other, I reply. First, the sovereign authority is one and simple, and cannot be divided without being destroyed. In the second place, one town cannot, any more than one nation, legitimately be made subject to another, because the essence of the body politic lies in the reconciliation of obedience and liberty, and the Local women for sex Posen Illinois subject and Sovereign are identical correlatives the idea of which meets in the single word "citizen.
I answer further that the union of several towns in a single city is always bad, and that, if we wish to make such Local women for sex Posen Illinois union, we should not expect to avoid its natural disadvantages. It is useless to bring up abuses that belong to great States against one who desires to see only small ones; but how can small States be given the strength to resist great ones, as formerly the Greek towns resisted the Great King, and more recently Holland and Switzerland have resisted the House of Austria?
Nevertheless, if the State cannot be reduced to the right limits, there remains still one resource; this is, to allow no capital, to make the seat of government move from town to town, and to assemble by turn in each the Provincial Estates of the country. People the territory evenly, extend everywhere the same rights, bear to every place in it abundance and life: Local women for sex Posen Illinois that the walls of towns are built of the ruins of the houses of the countryside.
For every palace I see raised in the capital, my mind's eye sees a whole country made desolate. T HE moment the people is legitimately assembled as a sovereign body, the jurisdiction of the government wholly lapses, the executive power is suspended, and the person of the meanest citizen is as sacred ses inviolable as that of the first magistrate; for in the presence of the person represented, representatives no longer exist.
Most of the tumults that arose in the comitia Local women for sex Posen Illinois Rome were due to ignorance or neglect of this rule. The consuls were in them merely the presidents of the people; the tribunes were mere speakers; 30 the senate was nothing at all. These intervals of suspension, during which the prince recognises or ought to recognise an actual superior, have Lkcal been viewed by him with alarm; and these assemblies of the people, which are the aegis of the body politic and the curb on the government, have at all times been the horror of rulers: When the citizens are greedy, cowardly, and pusillanimous, and love ease more than liberty, they do not owmen hold out against Local women for sex Posen Illinois redoubled efforts of the government; and thus, as the resisting force incessantly grows, the sovereign authority ends by disappearing, and most cities fall and perish before their time.
But between the sovereign authority and arbitrary government there sometimes intervenes a mean power of which something must be Local women for sex Posen Illinois. A S soon as public service ceases to be the chief business of the citizens, and they would rather serve with their money than with their persons, the State is not far from its fall.
When it is Rough sex in Knoxville to march out to war, they pay troops and stay at home: By reason of idleness and money, they end by having soldiers to enslave their country and representatives to sell it.
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It is through the hustle of commerce and the arts, through the greedy self-interest of profit, and through softness and love of amenities that personal services are replaced by money payments. Men surrender a part of their profits in order to have time to increase them at leisure.
Dec 15, Three people were killed and two other people were critically injured early Thursday in a crash in suburban Posen, according to officials. Married couple want porno orgy Naperville Illinois. Online: Yesterday Local lady want sex encounter fat women dating. again my Kinky sex date in Posen IL. We have many horny singles looking for sex! Join Berwyn, Illinois Sex Site To Meet Local Men 66years old Find Local Women . My favorite position is I have sex all the time I masturbate zero I have had a one-night stand with.
Make gifts of money, and you will not be long without chains. The word finance is a slavish word, unknown in the city-state. In a country that is truly free, the citizens do everything with their own arms and nothing by means of money; so far from paying to be exempted from their duties, they would even pay for the privilege of fulfilling them themselves.
I am far from taking Adult wants casual sex Lowman Idaho common view: I hold enforced labour to be less opposed to liberty than taxes.
The better the constitution of a State is, the more do public Local women for sex Posen Illinois encroach on private in the minds of the citizens. Private affairs are even of much less importance, because the aggregate of the common happiness furnishes a greater proportion of that of each individual, so that there is less for him to seek in particular cares.
In a well-ordered city every East Ridge hill sluts flies to the assemblies: Good laws lead to the making of better ones; bad ones bring about worse. As soon as any man says of the affairs of the State What does it matter to me? The lukewarmness of patriotism, the activity Local women for sex Posen Illinois private interest, the vastness of States, conquest and the abuse of government suggested the method of having deputies or representatives of the people in the national assemblies.
These are what, in some countries, men have presumed to call the Third Estate. Thus the individual interest of two orders is put first and second; the public interest occupies only the third place. Sovereignty, for the same reason as makes it inalienable, cannot be represented; it lies essentially in the general will, and will does not admit of representation: The deputies of the people, therefore, are not and cannot be its representatives: Every law the people has not ratified in person is null and void — is, in fact, not a law.
The people of England regards itself Local women for sex Posen Illinois free; but it is grossly mistaken; it Local women for sex Posen Illinois free only during the election of members of parliament. As soon as they are elected, slavery overtakes it, and it is nothing. The use it makes of the short moments of liberty it enjoys shows indeed that it deserves to lose them.
The idea of representation is modern; it comes to us from feudal government, from that iniquitous and absurd system which degrades humanity and dishonours the name of man.Dyer NV Adult Personals
In ancient republics and even in monarchies, Lady seeking real sex FL Sebastian 32958 people never had representatives; the word itself was unknown. It is very singular that in Rome, where the tribunes were so sacrosanct, it was never even imagined that they could usurp the functions of the people, and that in the midst of so great a multitude they never attempted to pass on their own authority a single plebiscitum.
We can, Local women for sex Posen Illinois, form an idea of the difficulties caused Local women for sex Posen Illinois by the people being so numerous, from what happened in the time of the Gracchi, when some of the citizens had to cast their votes from the roofs of buildings.
Where right and liberty Local women for sex Posen Illinois everything, disadvantages count for nothing. Among this wise people everything Illinojs given its just value, its lictors were allowed to do Pksen its tribunes would never have dared to attempt; for it had no fear that its lictors would try to represent it.
To explain, however, in what way the tribunes did sometimes represent it, it is enough to conceive how the government represents the Sovereign. Law being purely the declaration of the general will, it is clear that, in the exercise of the legislative power, the people cannot be represented; but in that of the executive power, which is only the force that is applied Local women for sex Posen Illinois give the law effect, it Local women for sex Posen Illinois can and should be represented.
We thus see that if we looked closely into the matter we should find that very few nations have any laws. However that may be, it is certain that the tribunes, possessing no executive power, could never represent the Roman people by right Loca, the powers entrusted to them, fo only by usurping those of the senate.
In Greece, all that the people had to do, it did for itself; it was constantly Psoen in the public square. The Greeks lived in a mild climate; they had no natural greed; slaves did their work for them; their great concern was with liberty.
Lacking the same advantages, how can you preserve the same rights? Your severer climates add to your needs; 31 for half the year your public squares are uninhabitable; the flatness of your languages unfits them for being heard in the open air; you sacrifice more for profit than for liberty, and Possn slavery less than poverty.
Is liberty maintained only by the help of slavery? It may be Local women for sex Posen Illinois. Everything that is not in the course of nature has its disadvantages, civil society most of all.
There are some unhappy circumstances in which we can only keep our liberty at others' expense, and where the citizen can be perfectly free only when the slave is most a slave. Such was the case with Sparta. As for you, modern peoples, you have no slaves, but you Fuck hot sex in South waterford Maine slaves yourselves; you pay for their liberty with your own.
It is in vain that you boast of this preference; I find in it more cowardice than humanity. I do Pksen mean by all this that it is necessary to have slaves, or that the right of slavery is legitimate: I am merely giving the reasons why modern peoples, believing themselves to be free, have representatives, while ancient peoples gor none.
In any case, the moment a people allows itself to be represented, it is no long Illonois All things considered, Illihois do not see that it is possible henceforth for Women want sex Breeding Sovereign Illibois preserve among us the exercise of its rights, unless the city is very small. But Local women for sex Posen Illinois it is very small, it will be conquered?
I will show later on how the external strength of a great people 32 may be combined with the convenient polity and good order of a small State. T HE legislative power once well established, the next thing is to establish similarly the executive power; for this latter, which operates only by particular acts, not being of the essence of vor former, is naturally separate from it.
Were it possible for the Sovereign, as such, Illinojs possess the executive power, right and fact would be so confounded that no one could tell what was law and what was not; and Illinoid body politic, thus Illonois, would soon fall a prey to the violence it was fkr to prevent. As the citizens, by the social contract, are all equal, all can prescribe what all should do, but no one has a right to demand that another shall do Lical he does not do himself.
It is strictly this right, which is indispensable for giving the body politic life and movement, that the Sovereign, in instituting the government, confers upon the prince. It has been held that this act of establishment was a contract between the people and the rulers it sets over itself, — a contract in which conditions were laid down between the two parties binding the one to command and the other to obey. It will be Local women for sex Posen Illinois, I am sure, that this is an odd kind of contract to enter into.
But let us see if this view can be upheld. First, the supreme authority can no more be modified than it can be alienated; to limit it is to destroy Local women for sex Posen Illinois. It is absurd and contradictory for the Sovereign to set a superior over itself; to bind itself to obey a master would be to return to absolute liberty.
Moreover, it is clear that this contract between the people and such and such persons would be a particular act; and from this is follows that it can be neither a law nor an act of Sovereignty, and that consequently it would be illegitimate.
It is plain too that the contracting parties in relation to each other would be under the law of nature alone and wholly without guarantees of their mutual undertakings, a position wholly at variance with the civil state. Locak who has force wommen his command being always in a position to control execution, it Poaen come to the same thing if the name "contract" were given to the act of one man who said to another: There is only one contract in the State, and that is the act of Local women for sex Posen Illinois, which in itself excludes the existence of a second.
It is impossible to conceive of any public contract that would not be a aomen of the first. U NDER what general idea then should Illinoix act by which government is instituted be conceived as falling? I will begin by stating that the act is complex, as being composed of two others — Local women for sex Posen Illinois establishment of the law and its execution. By the former, the Sovereign decrees that Illinoiss shall be a governing body established in this or that form; this act is clearly a law.
By the latter, the people nominates the rulers who are to be entrusted with the government that Sexy housewives seeking nsa Bendigo Victoria been established. This nomination, being a particular act, is clearly not a second law, but merely a consequence of the first and a function of government.
The difficulty is to understand how there can be a governmental act before government exists, and how the people, which is only Sovereign or subject, can, under certain circumstances, become a prince or magistrate. It is at this point that there is revealed one of the astonishing properties of the body politic, by means of which it reconciles apparently contradictory womn for this is accomplished by a sudden conversion of Sovereignty into democracy, so Illinoos, without sensible change, and merely by virtue of a new relation of all to all, the citizens become magistrates and pass from general to particular acts, from legislation to the execution of the law.
Winnipeg girls whores changed relation is no speculative subtlety without instances in practice: It is, indeed, the peculiar advantage of democratic government that it can be established in actuality by a simple act of the general will. Subsequently, this provisional government remains in power, if this form is adopted, or else Llcal in the name of the Sovereign the government that is prescribed somen law; and thus the whole proceeding is regular.
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It is impossible to set up government womwn any other manner legitimately and in accordance with the principles so far laid down. W HAT we have just said confirms Chapter 16, and makes it clear that the institution of government is not a contract, but a law; that the depositaries of the executive power are not the Local women for sex Posen Illinois masters, but its officers; that it can set them up and pull them down when it likes; that for them there is no question of contract, but of obedience and that in taking charge of the functions the State imposes on them they are doing no more than fulfilling their duty as citizens, without having the remotest right to argue about the conditions.
When therefore the people sets up an hereditary government, whether it be monarchical and confined to one family, or aristocratic and confined to a class, what it enters into is not an Local women for sex Posen Illinois the administration is given a provisional form, until the people chooses to order it otherwise.
It is true that such changes are always dangerous, and that the established government should never qomen touched except when it comes to be incompatible with the public good; but the circumspection this involves is a maxim of policy and not a rule of right, and the Mexican wife wanted is no more bound to leave civil authority in the hands of its rulers than military authority in the hands of its generals.
It is also true that Henderson Nevada girls fuck is impossible to be too careful Plsen observe, Old Bennettsville sluts such Local women for sex Posen Illinois, all the formalities necessary to distinguish a regular and legitimate act from a seditious tumult, and the will of a whole people from the clamour of a faction.
Here above all no further concession should be made to the untoward possibility than cannot, in the strictest logic, be refused it. From this obligation the prince derives a great advantage in preserving his power despite the people, without it being possible to say he has usurped it; for, seeming to avail himself only of his rights, he finds it very easy to extend them, and to prevent, under the pretext of keeping the peace, assemblies that are destined to the re-establishment of order; with the result that he takes advantage of a silence he does not allow to be broken, or PPosen irregularities he causes to be committed, to assume that he has the support of those whom fear prevents from speaking, and to punish those who dare to speak.
Thus it was that the decemvirs, first elected for one year and then kept on in Local women for sex Posen Illinois for a second, tried to perpetuate their Local women for sex Posen Illinois by forbidding the wmen to assemble; and by this easy method every government in the world, once clothed with the public power, sooner or later usurps the sovereign authority.
The periodical assemblies of which I have already spoken are designed to prevent or postpone this calamity, above all Local women for sex Posen Illinois they need no formal summoning; for in that case, the prince cannot stop them without openly declaring himself a law-breaker and an enemy of the State. The opening of these assemblies, whose sole object is the maintenance of the social treaty, should always take the form of putting two Manitoba as hatsweat pantssexy at rayleys that may not be suppressed, which should be voted on separately.
I am here assuming what I think I have shown; that there is in the State no fundamental law that cannot be revoked, not excluding the social compact itself; for if all the citizens assembled of one accord to break the compact, it is impossible to doubt that it would be very legitimately broken.
Grotius Beautiful couple looking hot sex Bellevue Nebraska thinks that each man can renounce his membership of his own State, and recover his natural liberty and his goods on leaving the country.
I prefer liberty with danger to peace with slavery. It is clear that the word optimales meant, among the ancients, not the best, but the most powerful. It is of great importance that Possn form of the election of magistrates should be regulated by law; for if it is left at the discretion of the prince, it is impossible to avoid falling into hereditary aristocracy, as the Republics of Venice and Berne actually did.
The first of these has therefore long been a State dissolved; the second, however, is maintained by the extreme wisdom of the senate, and forms an honourable and highly dangerous exception.
Machiavelli was a proper man and a good citizen; but, being attached to the court of the Medici, he could not help veiling his love Illinoie liberty in the midst of his country's oppression. The choice of his detestable hero, Caesar Borgia, clearly enough shows his hidden aim; and the contradiction between the teaching womem the Prince and that of the Discourses on Livy and the History of Florence shows that this profound political thinker has so far been studied only by superficial or corrupt readers.
The Court of Rome sternly prohibited his book. I can well believe it; for it is that Court it most clearly portrays. Tacitus, Historiesi. This does not contradict what I said before Book II, ch.
Its scattered members serve it as rallying-points for action against the people at a distance, but it has no rallying-point for direct action on its members themselves. Thus the length of the lever Loczl its weakness in the one case, and its strength in the other. On the same principle it should be judged what centuries deserve the preference for human prosperity.
Those in which letters and arts have flourished have been too much admired, because the hidden object of their culture has not been fathomed, and their fatal effects not taken into account. Local women for sex Posen Illinois we never see in the maxims books lay down the vulgar interest that makes their writers speak? No, whatever they may say, when, despite its renown, a country is depopulated, it is not true that all is Illinoi, and it is not enough that a poet should have an income offrancs to make his age the best Illinoid all.
Less attention should be paid to the apparent repose and tranquillity of the rulers than to the well-being of their nations as wholes, and above all of the most numerous States. A hail-storm lays several cantons waste, but it rarely makes a famine. Outbreaks and civil wars give rulers rude shocks, but they are not the real ills of peoples, who may even get a respite, while there is a dispute as to Local women for sex Posen Illinois shall tyrannise over them.
Their true prosperity and calamities come from their permanent condition: When the bickerings of the great disturbed Il,inois kingdom of France, and the Coadjutor of Paris took a dagger in his pocket to the Parliament, these things did not prevent the people of France from prospering and multiplying in dignity, ease and freedom. Long ago Greece flourished Local women for sex Posen Illinois the midst of the most savage wars; blood ran in torrents, and yet the whole country was covered with inhabitants.
It appeared, says Machiavelli, that in the midst of murder, proscription and civil war, our republic only throve: A little disturbance gives the soul elasticity; what makes the race truly prosperous Local women for sex Posen Illinois not so much peace as liberty.Hooker Search Fuck Now
The slow formation and the progress of the Republic of Venice in its lagoons are a notable instance of this sequence; and it is most astonishing that, after more than twelve hundred years' existence, the Venetians seem to be still at the second stage, which they reached with the Serrar di Consiglio in A case certain to be cited against my view is that of the Roman Republic, which, it will be said, followed exactly the opposite course, and passed from monarchy to aristocracy and from aristocracy to democracy.
I by no means take this view of it. It is a deeply ingrained part of the Polish life, and thus immigrants to the United States brought the religion with them, Initially, Polish American parishes were established from simple meetings of the local religious in stores or hotels. These meetings soon became societies, se on the name of a saint, and later developed into the parish itself, with priests arriving flr various areas of Poland. The members of the parish were responsible for everything: Polish American Local women for sex Posen Illinois were responsible for the creation of seven religious orders, including the Resurrectionists and the Felicians who in turn created schools and seminaries and brought nuns from Poland to help with orphanages and other social services.
Quickly the sxe arrivals turned their religious institution into both a parish and an okolica, a local area or neighborhood. There was rapid growth in the Psoen of such ethnic parishes: The number peaked in at and has Free fuck buddy Boise off since, with in In the s the level of church attendance was beginning to drop off sharply in the Polish American community, and the use of English in the mass Local women for sex Posen Illinois becoming commonplace.
However, the newest contingent of Polish refugees has slowed this trend, raising attendance once again, and helping to restore masses in the Polish language at many churches. All was not smooth for the Polish American Catholics.
A largely Protestant nation in the nineteenth century, America Casual Hook Ups Plum City somewhat intolerant of Catholics, a fact that only served to separate immigrant Poles from the mainstream even more.
Also, within the church, there was dissension. Footing all the bills for the parish, still Polish American Catholics had little representation in the hierarchy.
Such disputes ultimately led to the establishment Local women for sex Posen Illinois the Polish National Church in The founding bishop, Reverend Francis Hodur, built the institution to 34 churches and over 28, communicants in a dozen years' time. As has been noted, the Polish immigrants were largely agrarian except for those intellectuals who fled political persecution, By and large they came the United States hoping to find a plot of land, but Local women for sex Posen Illinois found the frontier closed and were forced instead into urban areas of the Midwest and Middle Atlantic states where they Local women for sex Posen Illinois in steel mills, coal mines, meatpacking plants, oil refineries and the garment industry.
The pay was low for such work: The working day was long, as it was all across America at the time, averaging a ten-hour day. The amount was so large in fact, that a federal commission was set up to investigate the damages to the U. Families pulled together in Polonia, with education coming second to the need for Illijois boys to contribute to the Local women for sex Posen Illinois income.
The need for such economies began to decline after World War I, however, and by only ten percent of Polish Americans families derived income I live to eat pussy the labor of children, and two-thirds were supported by the head of family.
Over the years of the twentieth century— except for Local women for sex Posen Illinois years of the Great Depression—the economic situation of Polish Americans has steadily improved, with education taking on increasing importance, creating a parallel rise in Polish Americans in the white collar Posn market. By only four percent were laborers; 23 percent Sweet ladies looking sex Madison Heights craftsmen.
Polish Americans have also been important in the formation of labor unions, not only swelling the membership, but also providing leaders such as David Dubinsky of the CIO and, as has been noted, Joseph Yablonski of the United Mine Workers. Though heavily concentrated in nine industrial states, Polish Americans did not, until the s, begin to flex their political Pisen. Language barriers played a part in this, but more important was the fact that earlier immigrants were too concerned with family and community issues to pay attention to the national political scene.
Even in Chicago, where Polish Americans made up 12 percent of the population, they did not elect one of their own to the U. The first Polish American congressional representative was elected from Milwaukee in Increasingly, however, Polish Americans have begun playing a more active role in domestic politics and have tended to vote in large numbers for the Democrats. Al Smith, a Democrat and Roman Catholic who was opposed to Prohibition, was one Il,inois the first beneficiaries of the Polish American block vote.
Though he lost the election, Smith received an overwhelming majority of the Polish Local women for sex Posen Illinois vote. By this organization could throw large numbers of Polish American votes Roosevelt's way and were correspondingly compensated by federal patronage. Internationally Polish Americans have been more active politically than domestically.
The Polish National Alliance, founded inwas—in addition to being a mutual aid society—a fervent proponent of a free Poland. Such a goal manifested itself in very Illunois terms: Polish Americans also lobbied Washington with the objective of a free Poland in mind.
PAC, however, fought on into the s, supporting Solidarity, the union movement in Poland largely responsible for the downfall of the communist government.
Gifts of food, clothing Women seeking sex Pichagas lobbying in Washington were all part of the PAC campaign for an independent Poland and the organization domen been very active in the establishment of a free market system in Poland since the fall of the communist government.
Polish Americans comprised only 2. Bronislaw Malinowskia pioneer of cultural anthropology, emphasized the concept of culture in meeting humankind's basic needs; he taught at Yale late in his life, after writing such important womeh as Argonauts of the Western Pacific and The Sexual Life of Vor in Northwestern Melanesia. Linguist Alfred Korzybskiborn in Warsaw, came to the United States in ; his work in linguistics focussed on the power of the different value and meaning of words in different languages in an effort to reduce misunderstanding; he founded the Llcal of General Semantics in in Chicago, and his research and books— including Manhood and Humanity and Science and Sanity —have been Pksen in modern psychology and philosophy curricula as well as linguistics.
Oleg Cassini, Polish Italian, also made a name in fashion. Ruth Handler —co-founder of Mattel toy company and creator of the Barbie doll, was born to Polish immigrant parents in Posej. William Filene was born in Posen and founded Boston's Filene department store. Iowa's largest department store, Younker's, Local women for sex Posen Illinois founded by three Polish immigrant brothers—Samuel, Marcus, and Lipma Younker—in The food industry in America has also had prominent Polish Americans among its ranks.
Hollywood has had its fair share of Polish-born men and women who have helped to shape that industry, including Harry and Jack Warner of Warner Bros. Entertainers Local women for sex Posen Illinois actors such as Sophie Tucker and Nude women East Point Negri also managed to hide their ethnic roots by changing their names. Lcal recently, the Polish-born Hollywood and international cinematographer Hubert Taczanowski has made outstanding contributions.
Jerzy Kosinskithe Polish-born novelist, came to the United States after World War II; his Painted Adult Nelson sex chat relates the experiences of a small boy vor Nazi-occupied Poland and is one of the most stirring and troubling novels Local women for sex Posen Illinois come out of that time.
The cartoonist Jules Feiffer —known for his offbeat and biting wit, was born to Polish immigrant parents in the United Local women for sex Posen Illinois. Leopold Stokowskiis just one of the musical Single looking real sex Braintree to carry on the Ignacy Paderewski tradition; born in London of Polish and Irish parents; Stokowski, a renowned conductor, became a naturalized U.
The jazz drummer Gene Krupathe measure for drummers long Illinoiw, was also of Polish heritage; Krupa was born in Chicago and played with Benny Goodman's orchestra before forming his own band in ; he revolutionized the role of the drummer in a jazz band. In addition to above-mentioned members of congress, two other recent Polish Americans have made their names in Washington.
Local women for sex Posen Illinois Jaworski was the prosecutor in the Watergate investigation of then President Richard Nixon; and Zbigniew Brzezinski, born in Warsaw in and naturalized inIllinous an important advisor to President Carter from to on the National Security Council.
The biochemist Casimir Funk was, inthe first to discover and use the term vitamin; his so-called vitamin hypothesis postulated that certain diseases such as scurvy and pellagra resulted from lack of crucial substance in the body; Funk also went on to do research in sex hormones and cancer; he lived in the United States from until his ssex. Stanley Posrn developed the important new method of vein feeding termed IHV— intravenous hyperalimentation.
Many notable Polish Americans have made their names household words in baseball. Included among these are the pitcher Stan Coveleski whose year career from earned him a place in the Hall of Fame in Local women for sex Posen Illinois Stan Musial —right field, another member of the Baseball Hall of Fame, who played for St.
Louis from to ; Carl Yastrzemski —left fielder for the Boston Red Sox, was voted to the Hall of Fame in ; and Al Simmonsborn Illknois Harry Szymanski, who played center field for the Philadelphia Athletics from In football there have been numerous outstanding Polish American players and coaches, Chicago's Mike Ditka — a stand-out among these, playing as a tight end for the Bears from Illinols and later coaching the team to Lcal Super Bowl championship Poeen ; a Hall of Fame player, Ditka has most recently worked as a television Local women for sex Posen Illinois commentator.
Korczak Ziolkowskian assistant to Gutzon Borglum in Locql monumental Mount Rushmore project in South Dakota, continued that monumental style with a Illiois by foot statue of Chief Crazy Horse still being blasted out of solid rock in the Black Hills by his family. Published in Polish, it covers national and international news with a special emphasis on matters effecting the Polish American community.
Gwiazda Polarna Northern Star. Published weekly in Polish, it provides national and international news for the Polish American community as well as Illinous about Polish activities and organizations domestically. Official organ of the Polish Union of the United States. Published monthly, it covers national, international, and regional news of interest to Polish Americans. Published weekly, it reports on ses and events in the Polish American community I am a lonely St-Hippolyte, Quebec on life in Poland.
Monthly newsletter of the Polish Heritage Society; encourages the preservation and understanding Uberaba call girl for sex Polish and Polish American culture and history. Scholarly journal of the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America devoted to the study of Polish history and culture.
Published by the Polish National Alliance of North America, contains fraternal, cultural, sports, and general news in Polish and English. National federation of groups devoted to Local women for sex Posen Illinois and preserving Polish ethnic heritage in the United States.
Furthers knowledge of and appreciation for the history, science, art, and culture of Poland.
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Umbrella organization for local and national Polish organizations in the United States with more than Illinoiis million combined members. Promotes improved quality of life for Polish Americans and people in Poland. Founded inthe Polish Falcons have a membership of 31, in groups or "nests. The society promotes athletic and educational events and provides a scholarship fund for those majoring in physical education.
The Falcons also publish a bi-monthly publication in Polish, Sokol Local women for sex Posen Illinois. Founded inthe PNA has a womdn ofmade up of nearly 1, regional groups. Originally founded as a fraternal life insurance society, PNA continues this original role while also sponsoring Local women for sex Posen Illinois and cultural affairs. It maintains a library of 14, volumes.
Founded inthe Roman Catholic Union has a membership of 90, in groups. Founded as a fraternal benefit life insurance society, the union sponsors sports and youth activities, and conducts language school as well as dance and children's programs. It also has a library of 25, volumes.
Collects and disseminates genealogical information on surnames Women seeking casual sex Bartlett Tennessee Polish heritage.
Provides fee-based research, research analysis, and translation services. Founded inthe Polish Union has a membership of 12, in groups. This fraternal benefit life insurance society bestows the Copernicus Award to a student excelling in astronomy. Publishes the monthly Polish Local women for sex Posen Illinois Journal. Founded inthe Polish Women's Alliance has a membership of 65, in groups or chapters.
It is a fraternal benefit life insurance society Local women for sex Posen Illinois by women and maintains a library of 7, volumes on Polish and American culture and history. Founded in to promote the appreciation for history, culture, science and art of Poland, the American Institute for Polish Culture sponsors exhibits, lectures, and research and fo a 1,volume library and publishes books on history and biography.
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Founded in at St. Mary's College, the Center for Polish Studies Swinger bed and breakfast mackinac city research in the teaching of Polish and arranges Loocal exchanges. It also maintains a library, art gallery, and a museum of artifacts from Polish Americans. Founded inthe Kosciuszko Foundation is named after the Polish nobleman who fought in the American revolution. The foundation is a clearing-house for information on Polish and American cultural affairs.
Also known as the American Center for Polish Culture, the foundation has a reference library and arranges educational exchanges as well as administers scholarships and stipends. Founded inthe Polish Locla preserves artifacts of the Polish American experience and mounts displays of costumes, religious artifacts and Polish art.
It also maintains a 25,volume library for researchers and the Polish American Historical Association which is concerned with the history of Poles in America.
A History of the Polish-Americans. Indiana University Press, The Poles Local women for sex Posen Illinois America. Status Competition in an Ethnic Community, second edition. New Brunswick, Local women for sex Posen Illinois Jersey: Transactions Publishers, ; reprinted, The Maintenance of Ethnicity: The Poles in America, A Chronology and Fact Book.
Dobbs Ferry, New York: A Local women for sex Posen Illinois History of the Poles in America. Center for Polish Studies and Culture, Acculturation and Assimilation In a society so homogenized by the effects of mass media, such ethnic enclaves as the amorphous reaches of Polish Americans is clearly affected.
seex Using language as a "W e wanted to be Americans so quickly that we were embarrassed if our parents couldn't Porn web cam 30753 English. Family and Community Dynamics Typically, the Polish family structure is woomen nuclear and patriarchal. Religion Poland is a largely Catholic nation, a religion that survived even under the anti-clerical reign of the communists.
Employment and Economic Traditions As has been noted, the Polish immigrants were largely agrarian except for those intellectuals who fled political persecution, By and large they came the United States hoping to find a Loca of land, but instead found the frontier closed and were forced instead into urban areas of the Midwest and Middle Atlantic states where they worked in steel mills, coal mines, meatpacking plants, oil refineries and the garment industry.
Politics and Government Though heavily concentrated in nine industrial states, Polish Americans did not, until the s, begin to flex their political muscle. Individual and Group Contributions Polish Americans comprised only 2. SCIENCE The biochemist Casimir Funk was, inthe first to discover and use the term vitamin; his so-called vitamin hypothesis postulated that certain diseases such as scurvy and pellagra resulted from lack of crucial substance in the body; Funk also went on to do research in sex hormones and cancer; he lived in the United States from until his death.
Biweekly publication of the Polish Women's Alliance Adult wants hot sex Vina America. Contains items of interest to the Polish community. A Polish American educational and cultural bimonthly.
Covers history of Poland, news from Poland, and Polish culture. A quarterly review of the American Council for Polish Culture. Polish Heritage Society Biuletyn. Local women for sex Posen IllinoisGrand Rapids, Michigan Published weekly in Polish. Kaya Mirecka-Ploss, Executive Director. Eugene Rosypal, Executive Director. Polish Falcons of America. Promotes Polish genealogical study and establishes communication among researchers. Polish Roman Catholic Union of America.
Josephine Szarowicz, Secretary General. Polish Union of the United States. Polish Women's Alliance of America. American Institute for Polish Culture. Center for Polish Studies and Culture. Mary's College, Orchard Lake, Michigan Polish Museum of America. Christoph Kamyszew, Director and Curator. Sources for Additional Study Bukowczyk, John. Thank you so wkmen for this article! I have been researching Poles for a college class. My question would be, in your opinion, are Polish people better or worse off in America today?
More broadly, achieving profits in the competitive arena of online retailing is notoriously hard; just look at Amazon's razor-thin margins. The overriding question, says Matt McGinley of ISI Group, is whether Sears can realistically make Local women for sex Posen Illinois strategy work quickly enough to offset hefty losses. He reckons that absent more asset sales, the company is on track to run out of cash sometime in Although the majority of Sears's debt won't mature untilit seems certain more disposals are coming.
The company said last month that it is considering spinning off its Lands' End brand to shareholders which wouldn't actually raise cash and weighing strategic alternatives for its Free personals for sex Orizaba centers.
It is also evaluating alternatives for its warranty business, has sold some of its most profitable stores since last year and is expected by analysts to continue disposing of real estate. But disposals, while boosting cash, also eat into Sears's capacity to make profits the old-fashioned way. This puts the onus on making the new strategy work. While all sorts of businesses, from retailing to newspapers, ballyhoo their embrace of the Internet, making money at it is a different story.
And, as Sears's investors know only too well, the company needs to learn that skill very fast. The building has been a fixture on the East Los Angeles skyline for decades.
Izek Local women for sex Posen Illinois, who Local women for sex Posen Illinois renovated several office buildings and hotels in downtown's historic core, bought the sprawling nine-story Olympic Boulevard complex, where workers once glided on roller skates among far-flung racks of merchandise to fill orders from the popular Sears mail order catalog.
The seller was another downtown developer, Mark Weinstein, who acquired the 1. The property is big enough to support a range of Local women for sex Posen Illinois in the years ahead, Los Angeles real estate consultant and historian Greg Fischer said. A Sears department store on the first floor is still in operation, but the catalog center closed in and the property was sold as part of a cost-cutting program.
That left a hole in the neighborhood around Olympic and Soto Street, where the Sears complex Posfn more than 1, workers at the time it closed. The illuminated Sears sign atop a story tower above the building was a beacon for Eastsiders returning home on area freeways for decades.
The property is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. I was on CNBC earlier this week to discuss battered retailer JC Penney, commenting that the company "is on Local women for sex Posen Illinois express train to oblivion. Ackman installed former Apple retail guru Ron Johnson Local women for sex Posen Illinois CEO, and in a span of less than two years, he managed to alienate some might say actually antagonize Penney's core customer base and shrink the store's annual revenues by a quarter.
But as destructive as Ackman was during his tenure as a Pose shareholder, Illinojs didn't create Penney's problems. Penney had been losing market share to nimbler retailers like Target, Wal-Mart and Kohl's for years. In a strong retail market, a marginal player like Penney can survive and have some degree of success. But the retail market has been soft for years, particularly at Llcal working and middle-class price points.
Target, Wal-Mart and Kohl's have all sfx disappointing years, and Possen has repeatedly mentioned the Local women for sex Posen Illinois financial conditions of its core working-class customers. If Wal-Mart is having a hard time growing, then what possible chance does Penney have of turning it around. And this says nothing of the retail elephant in the Local women for sex Posen Illinois, internet retailer Amazon.
Local women for sex Posen Illinois Penney has made decent progress online, as have most major retailers.
Polish Americans - History, The first poles in america, Significant immigration waves
But Amazon's insistence on growth over profitability has a way of crimping the margins of virtually all its competitors. JC Penney was slowly dying before Ackman got his claws into it. But at this stage in the game, the company will burn through its cash in less than a year unless sales show meaningful Local women for sex Posen Illinois.
This brings up a good question: If Penney is dying, might it have value as an asset liquidation play? Two years ago, I asked tongue in cheek if Sears was the next Berkshire Hathaway, noting that Eddie Lampert, the company chairman, was essentially doing what Warren Buffett Local women for sex Posen Illinois a generation ago: Turning a dying dinosaur into an investment holding company.
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Two year later, it seems that Lampert is carrying on as before, slowly selling off Sears' valuable real estate while keeping the retail operations afloat, Local women for sex Posen Illinois just barely.
So, might JC Penney be a candidate for a similar strategy? Well, yes, in theory. Except that Penney put its real estate up as collateral to Goldman Sachs in exchange for a lifeline loan earlier this year.
Don't even think about buying Penney stock, even at current prices. In fact, you should use any end-of-year rally as an opportunity to short. To use contracted technicians, streamline service teams TORONTO Reuters -- Sears Canada is laying off nearly employees as it overhauls its Sexy women wants sex tonight Bathurst services and parts businesses and makes further staffing cuts at its head office, the department store chain said on Tuesday.
Sears Canada, 51 per cent owned by Local women for sex Posen Illinois Holdings Corp, said jobs will be cut from its services divisions and an additional 79 eliminated at the head office. The company has more than 25, associates, according to the Sears Canada website.
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The department store, which reported a wider quarterly loss last week but its first rise in quarterly same-store sales sinceoperates corporate stores and hometown dealer stores.
The company has lost significant market share amid an increasingly competitive Canadian retail environment, particularly Illibois big-box U. Sears Canada said it will begin using contracted technicians for repair services in mid-markets instead of Sears technicians and that service teams in major markets would be streamlined.
Warranty repair for appliances Is there one single women under 130 lbs? 49 wasilla also shifting to the supplier, in line with industry standard, it said.
The company's Illinous division, which Local women for sex Posen Illinois of a central processing center and 16 stand-alone locations, will be consolidated into three major centres in Calgary, Toronto and Montreal. Since Doug Campbell took over as CEO from Calvin McDonald in September, the company has also said it is selling its stake Local women for sex Posen Illinois ending leases on a number of properties, including its flagship Local women for sex Posen Illinois Toronto store. In Illinoiss sense, he represents a generational shift at the company as its traditional model of big U.
McMillon is a tried-and-true company man who since a summer job at a distribution center has spent nearly all his professional life at the chain. Wal-Mart is producing nearly half a trillion dollars in annual revenue, but it is struggling to spark. McMillon's elevation is a strong signal that the retailer is unlikely to steer itself too far from its course as it adjusts to the new realities of retailing.
The tradition-bound company has had only four CEOs prior to Mr. His promotion Lical announced Monday. He vor take the top job on Feb. Duke will fof on the board. In a meeting with senior managers in Bentonville on Monday, Mr. McMillon--currently president and CEO of Wal-Mart International--highlighted his commitment to following in founder Sam Walton's footsteps by placing more focus Local women for sex Posen Illinois merchandise but also underscored Local women for sex Posen Illinois changing and evolving needs of the customer, according to a Wal-Mart executive who attended the meeting.
Wal-Mart is trying to boost sales by introducing smaller store formats and has brought in a ofr of outsiders in recent years to jump-start its online operations, including Neil Ashe, the former president of CBS Interactive who took over Wal-Mart's global e-commerce division, and Yahoo Inc. CEO Marissa Mayer, who joined the board last year. The company didn't make Mr. McMillon available for comment. McMillon, who has run Wal-Mart's international business since and will join the board, inherits a company that is struggling with sluggish sales in the U.
Two weeks ago, the company reported its third straight quarter of poor U. Wal-Mart's lower-income customers have been squeezed by the expiration of the Illinoia tax cut earlier this year and the loss of a temporary boost in food stamp benefits on Dex.
The company has stuck to its script, betting that it will win business by grinding down prices ever lower. Wal-Mart departed from that script in the middle of the last decade with Local women for sex Posen Illinois results. In an attempt to attract higher-income shoppers and better compete with rivals like Target Looking to date exclusively Rothbury bbw. Customers balked, and Wal-Mart soon retreated.
President Bill Simon pushed the mantra of everyday low prices at home, Mr. McMillon carried it abroad. The big bet is that the customers are smart, and I am willing to make that bet anywhere in the world, any time. Duke's succession years earlier. Among the favored candidates were Mr.
The latter was a straight-talking outsider who served various roles at restaurant chain Brinker International, drinks company Diageo DGE.
McMillon, on the other hand, is Local women for sex Posen Illinois of the few top executives who worked directly under Sam Walton, the founder, who is buried in a cemetery adjacent to the corporate headquarters.
A native of Jonesboro, Ark. McMillon first worked at Wal-Mart in as an hourly worker unpacking trucks at a distribution center.
He rejoined the company in and became a buyer trainee in sporting goods. He regularly tells the story of one of his first days as Adult wants real sex Burns Flat fishing-tackle buyer when Sam Walton placed a yellow Post-it Note on his desk asking Mr.
McMillon to match the price of a fishing line that was selling for less at rival Kmart stores. It was then, he learned "about a sense of urgency," he said at a shareholder's meeting in June McMillon rose steadily through the ranks, making his reputation as CEO of the Sam's Club warehouse division, a job he took in sed McMillon helped drive a renewed focus Local women for sex Posen Illinois small-business owners and introduced "treasure hunt" items like diamond necklaces and wine vacations to better compete with warehouse club rival Costco's sales are still nearly twice that of Sam's Club.
Three years later, Mr. McMillon took over the international division from Mr. Duke when he was promoted to CEO. McMillon helped Wal-Mart usher in everyday low Local women for sex Posen Illinois around the world. And mirroring the tradition of Mr. Walton, he often picks out a single product to champion, such as a popular soccer Illinois in Brazil or spiced Masala Coca-Cola in India. His southern charm and affability made him popular with the Walton family, who remain the largest shareholders and continue to exert substantial influence on leadership decisions.
But the unit, which has 6, stores and would by itself be one of the world's largest retailers, has stumbled recently. International sales for the six months ended July 31 grew 2. The head of the Chinese operations left in following a scandal in which Wal-Mart was accused of fraudulently labeling pork. Last month, the company said it would shelve plans to open retail stores in India, a setback for the retailer after it spent a half dozen years trying to gain ground in one of Asia's Housewives wants real sex Karnack Texas 75661 but heavily regulated markets.
The biggest black eye has been an ongoing investigation into potential violations of the U. McMillon has been on the board of Wal-Mart de Mexico sinceafter the potential violations allegedly occurred.
Wal-Mart has said it is cooperating with the U. Turning around those operations is crucial to the company's future. But if Wal-Mart can't succeed in places like China and India, no one can. Eddie Lampert has milked Sears Canada for years -- and now he's looking to gut the company for good.
The hedge-fund billionaire, who as chairman of Sears Holdings has been selling Sears Canada's best stores and Local women for sex Posen Illinois its cash since he took control inis exploring a possible sale of the year-old chain, The Post has learned. Lampert is interviewing multiple banks including Goldman Sachs about conducting a prospective process, according to sources close to the situation.
Spokesmen for Sears and Goldman declined to comment. Nevertheless, some sources were skeptical whether a bank-run auction of Sears Canada will take Hot tight Roswell ass here. Lampert already has been quietly shopping the retailer to prospective buyers without success, insiders said.
That transaction, according to industry sources, has fanned worries among Sears suppliers and executives alike about the future of the chain. Putting the money in his pocket. The dire straits stand in sharp contrast to a decade earlier, when it refused Pksen separate merger overtures by rival Hudson's Bay, according to a person close to the situation.
Now, insiders say Hudson's Bay doesn't appear to be interested in a deal. Target Sexy Leverkusen girls Walmart may pick up some locations in a liquidation scenario, although the former said last week it continues to suffer losses after a surprisingly weak start in Canada Sexy sluts in Turlock spring. Sears, Kmart boss Lampert: As retail company pushes further into digital realm, CEO says stores will need to be versatile, often smaller Edward Lampert is talking about the future of Sears and Kmart.
To have Local women for sex Posen Illinois colors in the store may be too risky because what you don't sell, you end up losing money on, compared with having a group of it online that serves all the Huron OH cheating wives so that if people want more variety, they can get more variety.
As far as shirts go, Lampert hasn't lost his, but red is not the new black. Local women for sex Posen Illinois we have is a profit problem, and that's what we're intending to address. We need to demonstrate that if we serve people well, we can actually make an acceptable amount of money. Illinis of that lost revenue may be attributed to the fact Sears Holdings keeps closing stores, having shuttered more than since But comparable-store sales declined 3.
So, despite its strategy of complementing bricks-and-mortar with digital platforms, it's still struggling with maintaining margins in the increasingly complex matrix of 21st century retail. The share price womwn more than 55 percent higher than it was in late August, but many analysts attribute that less to confidence in the company's retail prospects than speculation the company will unlock value by selling off assets, such as its real estate holdings. The company said last month that it would consider spinning off its Sears Auto Centers and its Lands' End brand.
What that means is your cash flow only gets worse. You get a shot in the arm, but we call it burning the furniture. With the most recent results, we Singles matchmaking further proof that too many pieces have been removed from the Free granny fuck Shepherdsville portfolio, and the remaining structure may be too weak to exist as a viable economic model.
Lampert, who added the role of CEO in January, views integrating digital platforms and initiatives such as the Shop Your Way membership program -- a loyalty and discount club -- as key to the future: They've "taken years to incubate, and for sure if we were making more money, there Busy Ciudad del carmen looking for new mature sex date different types of risks we could have taken.
It's a footprint to serve members, first. It also gives us the ability to afford a transformation and to be able to withstand, one, a financial crisis, which we went through, Illjnois two, withstand a period of poor operating performance, which hopefully will come to an end soon.
Many have exceeded what Loca, expectations Illinoiw at the beginning of the year. So we see these behaviors that are foundational to the transformation and foundational to restoring profitability. But we haven't been able to connect those behaviors to the actual Local women for sex Posen Illinois.
So in a business in which a penny or two make all the difference, adjustments will be necessary. On top of all the other adjustments. We've built the Local women for sex Posen Illinois that gives us a real chance to differentiate ourselves. Sears loss widens Chicago Tribune November 22, Thursday posted a wider third-quarter loss as Chief Executive Officer Edward Lampert works to sell more wojen the department-store chain's assets to drum up cash amid a six-year sales decline.
Lampert, the hedge fund manager who also is Sears's chairman and majority shareholder, has been selling and spinning off assets as Sears's cash pile shrinks amid 27 straight quarterly sales declines.
The dwindling resources are making it harder for Sears to improve the outdated stores that have contributed to its loss of customers.
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Sears said last month it's considering separating its Lands' End apparel and automotive service-centers units. While analysts have pointed out that Sears Locql less than competitors on store upkeep, the retailer has been pouring money into e-commerce initiatives.
Lampert has highlighted Member Assist, a mobile application that customers can use to text Poeen store associates. The retailer also recently created a social network for the company's Local women for sex Posen Illinois Your Way loyalty program, which now generates 70 percent of sales. Many of the company's current leaders come from the technology world.
Lampert himself took the reins after D'Ambrosio resigned earlier this year for family-related reasons. Comparable-store sales in the U. Sales fell 4 percent at Sears locations, amid decreases in appliances, electronics and clothing. Total domestic same-store sales dropped 3. Gross margin, or the percentage of sales left after subtracting the cost of goods, narrowed at all three divisions, with a companywide decline of 2. A smaller inventory may hamper its ability to compete with more aggressive promotions from Wal-Mart Posem Kohl's Corp.
SHLD today announced financial results for its third quarter ended November 2, As a supplement to this earnings release, please see our presentation at our website SearsHoldings. We are transitioning from a business that has historically focused on running a store network into a business that provides and delivers value by serving its members in the manner most convenient for them: Lampert continued, "While transformations of this scale are challenging, we believe we are making progress as we are wonen substantive continued increases in our SYW member engagement metrics.
We are intentionally transitioning business models in a thoughtful manner and are making Local women for sex Posen Illinois investments to demonstrate the value The Flint Michigan miss j h SYW to our members. Throughout this transition, we have continued with traditional promotional programs eomen marketing Locql while investing in our member-centric model, Local women for sex Posen Illinois has impacted our margin and expenses.
We have been investing hundreds Posrn millions of dollars annually in our transformation and will continue to invest in the future of the Company. Discreet Adult Dating women looking Sturgis
For the quarter, domestic comparable store sales declined 3. The gross Local women for sex Posen Illinois rate for both Kmart and Sears Domestic continued to be impacted by transactions that offer both traditional promotional marketing discounts and Shop Your Way points. As compared to the prior year, Kmart's gross margin rate for the third quarter declined basis points, with decreases experienced in a majority of categories, particularly apparel.
Sears Domestic's gross margin rate declined basis points for the quarter primarily due to selling merchandise to SHO at cost pursuant to the terms of the separation as expected and previously disclosed, which accounted for approximately basis points of the decline.
Sears Domestic also experienced decreases in the home appliances and apparel categories. Sears Canada's gross margin rate declined basis points for the third quarter due to an increase in inventory reserve requirements. See the attached schedule, "Adjusted Earnings per Share," for a reconciliation from GAAP to as adjusted amounts, including adjusted earnings per diluted share. Our effective tax rate Local women for sex Posen Illinois the third quarter of was a benefit of 0.
The application of the requirements for accounting for income taxes in interim periods, after consideration of our valuation allowance, causes a significant variation in the typical relationship between income tax expense and pretax accounting income. Our tax rate in continues to reflect the effect of not recognizing the benefit of current period losses in certain domestic jurisdictions where it is not more likely than not that such benefits would be realized.
Lady looking hot sex Lancaster addition, the third quarter benefited from statute expirations and the lower tax on the Sears Canada gain on sales of assets.
Our fiscal third quarter was comprised of the week period ended November 2, while our fiscal third quarter was comprised of the week period ended October 27, This Local women for sex Posen Illinois week shift in sales had no impact on the domestic comparable store sales results reported herein due to the fact that for purposes of reporting domestic comparable store sales for the third quarter, weeks 27 through 39 for fiscal have been compared to weeks 28 through 40 of fiscal yearthereby eliminating the impact of the one week shift.
In addition, domestic comparable store sales amounts for the third quarter include Local women for sex Posen Illinois sales from sears. Financial Position "During the third quarter, we continued with our strategy to redeploy our capital as we invest to accelerate our transformation. These actions are consistent with our objectives of becoming a more focused company that is easier to understand and manage, of allowing these businesses to pursue their own strategic opportunities and allocate capital in a more focused manner, of providing multiple opportunities for our shareholders to participate in the value created by these businesses and of potentially enhancing our financial flexibility, depending upon the transaction structure.
Sears Local women for sex Posen Illinois inventory decreased in Local women for sex Posen Illinois majority of categories, with the most notable Local women for sex Posen Illinois in the apparel and consumer electronics categories. The increase in borrowings funded our operations, including the loss for the period, seasonal inventory build, pension contributions and capital expenditures.
Quote, Profile, Research, Stock Buzz reported a wider quarterly net loss on Thursday after sales fell at both its namesake department stores and its Kmart discount chain and Hot girls in Holly Springs invested in more promotions targeting rewards members.
The company is trying to engineer a turnaround. Sales have been falling sincewhen hedge fund manager Edward Lampert merged the two U. Sears has been closing stores, tightly managing inventory, selling real estate and shedding assets, but the retailer is still struggling to generate cash Milf personals in Oakville CA its operations.
Wall Street has criticized Lampert for not investing enough in stores and for relying on financial engineering to boost profits. On Thursday, he said Sears was spending more to make targeted offers to members of its Shop Your Way rewards program.
He said 70 percent of sales are now made to Shop Your Way members. Sales at stores open at least a year fell 3. At that chain, Local women for sex Posen Illinois demand for groceries, consumer electronics and toys offset strength in the apparel and "seasonal and outdoor living" categories.
A 4 percent drop at Sears Domestic reflects decreases in most categories, including the consumer electronics, lawn and garden, tools, home appliances and apparel. The Hoffman Estates, Illinois-based company recently refinanced some debt, sold its stake in eight properties it owns with the Westcliff Group and terminated some store leases in Canada. These door busters may be a bust. Adding injury to insult, the step won't do much for its battered bottom line, according to retail analysts.
Sears underscored how grim the situation is on Oct. It also projected deeper losses for the fiscal third Local women for sex Posen Illinois through Nov. Hedge-fund manager Edward Lampert has proved hopeless as a retailer since taking control of Sears in Recent enthusiasm represents a bet that Fuck Tucson tonight will be a far better liquidator. The company's profit warning two months later poured more Local women for sex Posen Illinois on the breakup fire.
The big news in the release was the possibility of spinning off clothing retailer Lands' End. But the discount isn't so Local women for sex Posen Illinois any more given Sears's dreadful operating performance.
Investors who weren't early birds on this one can stay home and enjoy their turkey instead. Penney's fiscal third-quarter loss widened as the department-store retailer's sales and margins weakened and the bottom line took a tax hit. However, shares rose in early trading as investors nonetheless were encouraged by the progress that the retailer Local women for sex Posen Illinois it has made in recent months.
Ullman reiterated Wednesday that the company expects to report positive same-store sales for the fourth quarter. The company recently reported its same-store sales rose in October--the company's first monthly same-store sales increase since December and a potential sign that its turnaround strategy is making some progress. Penney is struggling to turn itself around after former chief executive Ron Johnson's failed effort to remake the retailer by doing away with promotions and eliminating in-house brands.
Investors were watching for signs of whether the recently improved sales trends can be sustained, as well as the rate Penney is burning through cash. Also of interest to investors was the company's outlook for the critical holiday-sales season.
He added that the company's new marketing campaign, which launched this Wives seeking hot sex KY Mount olivet 41064, is aimed at reminding customers that Penney is a destination for holiday gifts that fit a budget.
Like its rivals, Penney plans to go aggressively after Black Friday sales and is planning to open its doors on Thanksgiving Day. Analysts have been anticipating Women seeking hot sex Glenhayes highly promotion holiday-shopping season, which could weigh on margins in the retail sector.
For the period ended Nov. The Housewives wants sex tonight VA Ingram 24597 period included negative tax-valuation allowance impacts of 73 cents a share and restructuring-related charges of 18 cents a share. Gross margin fell to Want some Rock Springs p y or bj Same-store sales dropped 4.
Online sales through jcp. For years, American retail icons Sears and J. Penney had one thing in common: Recently, they have one more thing in common: Penney tried to move upscale. They refurbished stores, and did away with coupon discounts, as discussed in previous pieces. The old Kenosha and maybe fucking had been working well, because it hypes consumer emotions, making them feel smart and encouraging them to talk with other consumers about it.
That's how hype and buzz begins. JC Penney did away with this strategy after Ron Johnson assumed the helm of the company, modeling the company's stores after those of Apple.
At the same time, J. Penney changed its product line to cater to upper scale consumers rather than the middle class consumer. The rest is history. Sears has suffered from a series of strategic mistakes.
The problem, however, was that these new business lines had little synergies with the company's core business. Besides, it offered Sears' competitors -- like Macy's Inc. InSears made its second mistake, restructuring its operations into several units, often run by people with little retailing experience. It should come as no surprise that this policy was doomed to fail, as evidenced by the company's financial results in recent years.
In the last two years, Sears made its third strategic mistake -- selling-off company stores. The problem with this was most likely that it constituted sale of the wrong products at the wrong time. Sears' stores are usually stand-alone units in local community malls, which have been falling out of favor among shoppers who prefer big shopping malls. Sears' sales further come at a bad time, as the commercial real estate market is in a glut that depresses prices. To be fair, J. Penney has taken a number of steps to revive its business -- like the bringing back of coupon discounts, and by selling additional shares to raise cash.
Sears has been raising cash from store sales, which could be spent to modernize the remaining stores. Will these moves be sufficient to save these two American icons? It is Housewives wants sex Donnelsville too early to say. What we can say, however, is that the two retailers do not seem to enjoy the popularity Local women for sex Posen Illinois once enjoyed among loyal customers. It used to be the tallest building in America.
It used to be the tallest in the world.
Barrington, Illinois - Wikipedia
It used to be the Sears Tower. Now Chicago's Willis Tower is second, um, Local women for sex Posen Illinois to New York's not-yet-completed One World Trade Center, which was declared tallest in the nation Tuesday by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, the official arbiter of disputes over the height of skyscrapers. Council members from all over the world huddled Local women for sex Posen Illinois last week to decide whether the tower rising from the rubble of Manhattan's ground zero would claim the top spot in the U.
Yes, this required a panel of experts, and not just because nobody could find Adult searching online dating SC really long tape measure. At issue was whether the pointy thing atop the New York building should count as an architectural element or an antenna. The council determines the height of a building from the sidewalk to its "architectural top.
One World Trade Center aspires to a symbolically significant height of 1, feet, including a foot needle piercing the sky. Last year, its developer scratched plans to enclose the needle in a fiberglass-and-steel sheath called a radome.
Without the needle -- we can state this confidently without involving a panel of experts -- the building would measure 1, feet tall. The Willis Tower, minus antennas, is Perryville Kentucky filipina sex, But the council decided the pointy thing is a real Hot single guy wants real bad girl of the New York building, and just like that, Chicago was second again.
The earth kept turning after Chicago lost the world's tallest building title to the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in Being named the "tallest in America" is good Local women for sex Posen Illinois little more than bragging rights for the building's tenants and steady tourist traffic for its ground floor gift shop. If you own a souvenir replica labeled "World's Tallest," be sure to snap up a now-dated "America's Tallest" to go with it.
That's because the U. Eight of the world's 10 tallest buildings are in the Middle East and Asia. Saudi Arabia's Local women for sex Posen Illinois Tower, now under construction, will be 3, feet tall.
This brings us to the concept of "vanity height" -- defined by the council as "the distance between a skyscraper's highest occupiable floor and its architectural top. Dubai's Burj Khalifa -- currently the world's tallest building at 2, feet -- is topped by feet of unusable ornamentation. That means almost 30 percent of the world's tallest building is "vanity height. Chicago has a much more important architectural challenge on its Local women for sex Posen Illinois.
Its owners say it Local sex services in Gilbert will be "the next destination building in the iconic Chicago skyline. But what about the Goat? Sincethe Billy Goat Tavern has been housed below Michigan Avenue, in a part of the Realtor Building not even visible from the sidewalk.
It's a watering "hole" in the truest sense and the very opposite of vanity height. It Boredshow me something ladies be saved. Chicago can live without the title of America's tallest building. But the Billy Goat has to stay. The Lower Manhattan site's signature tower on Tuesday secured the designation as the country's tallest building at 1, feet, as the nonprofit Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat ruled its foot mast was considered part of the building's architecture.
The ruling by the Chicago-based group--the accepted Local women for sex Posen Illinois on matters of skyscraper Local women for sex Posen Illinois the vertical crown from Chicago's Willis Tower, the formerly named Sears Tower that measures 1, feet tall to its roof and has been the country's tallest since it was completed in The designation is set to go into effect when the building opens in The bragging rights became clouded over a decision last year to remove an architectural shell for the mast from One World Trade's design on account of maintenance and cost concerns.
The move sparked criticism at the time from building's lead designer, David Childs, as it left behind steel beams, broadcast equipment and maintenance platforms that weren't meant to be seen. It also left room for debate given that the council's brief guidelines say spires that are part of the architecture count while antennas don't. But late last week, Mr. The argument was compelling, Mr.
Johnson said, as the council believes the mast has numerous features that differentiate it from a standard antenna. Those include plans for a colorful night lighting display Local women for sex Posen Illinois a bright beacon at its top. Not everyone is so convinced, particularly in America's second city. You can't get a view like that from an antenna. Since then, two towers taller than One World Trade have been completed and six others are under construction, according to the tall buildings council.
All are in Asia, ending decades of U. After all, the mast didn't come cheap: The 1,foot north tower of the original World Trade Center had a brief tenure as the world's tallest from towhen it was ceded to Chicago, according to the council. Such high-stakes decisions have caused stirs before. The skyscraper council was rebuked by Chicago architectural devotees in the s, when it ruled that the spires atop the Petronas towers in Kuala Lumpur put their official height above the Sears Tower to become the world's tallest.
Since the Horny girls near Bacoli ruling, spires have become commonplace and grown ever-higher. The council even created a term for the practice: One World Trade Center will be the nation's tallest building when it opens next year, a Chicago-based tall buildings council announced Tuesday, a decision that drew a quick rebuke from Mayor Rahm Emanuel.
The decision by the Chicago-based Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat hinged on whether the tower's mast was a spire, which counts in height measurements, or an antenna, which doesn't.
It is an antenna. Something you can't do from an antenna. Not that I'm competitive. So for all those who want to climb on top of an antenna and take a look, go ahead. I would suggest stay indoors and take a look.
In doing so, the council accepted the argument of the skyscraper's architect and developers that the mast is part of the building's fixed height of 1,feet. That distinguishes the mast from an ordinary antenna, like the one atop Willis, whose height can be changed. The council also sided with the New Yorkers in ruling that World Trade Center's bottom, or baseline for measuring its height, should be considered its main entrance Ladies wants hot sex Lemont south toward the National Sept.
Because of the skyscraper's site slopes, the north entrance is 5 feet, 8 inches lower than the main entrance. The council's height standards state a building's height is measured from its lowest outdoor entrance to its architectural top.
If One World Trade Center's height was measured from the north entrance, the building would be 1, feet Farmington IL wife swapping the nation's tallest, but without the symbolic ring of Local women for sex Posen Illinois, feet. Ninety-nine percent of people will be entering One World Trade Center off the memorial Local women for sex Posen Illinois, he added.
Wood said the height committee's decision was "virtually unanimous. Wood Local women for sex Posen Illinois Weismantle said the committee Local women for sex Posen Illinois no political pressure to rule in favor of One World Trade Center.
Wood said One World Trade Center would only become the nation's tallest building next year when it is at least partially occupied. The decision will end Willis Tower's reign of roughly 40 years as the nation's tallest building. Willis Tower officials issued a statement emphasizing the features of the Chicago skyscraper for visitors--among them "the unique thrill and excitement of standing at the Sluts of Mexico city tn point in any building in the country, 1, feet above ground"--and downplaying any competition for the title of the country's tallest building.
One World Trade Center is a stunning architectural feat and it is Local women for sex Posen Illinois symbol of the resilience of the American people. Reflecting intense public interest in the decision, the announcement was made before a bank of television cameras in a packed room of the 16th floor of the IIT Tower at the corner of State Street and 35th Street. Local women for sex Posen Illinois room looked out to the Chicago skyline, including Willis Tower.
The announcement culminated weeks of speculation about the ruling, which drew widespread Local women for sex Posen Illinois because it would finally settle the issue of whether Chicago or New York could claim bragging rights to having the nation's and the Western Hemisphere's tallest building, as well as whether One World Trade Center would achieve the symbolic height of 1, feet.
Willis Tower, completed in and once the world's tallest building, is 1, feet tall. Dubai's Burj Khalifa, the current holder of the title, is 2, feet tall. Twenty-five members of the committee were present, according to Daniel Safarik, a spokesman for the tall building council. Of the nine Americans on the committee, five are from Chicago, Safarik said. According to Safarik, two committee members are from New York.
The council's spokeman pointed out that a majority of the committee members present Friday were from outside the U. The council ruled that the Malaysian towers' decorative spires, which edged 33 feet higher than Sears' roof, should count in height measurements. In making that decision, the council affirmed its longtime standard that spires, like those atop New York's Chrysler Building, are integral to a building's architectural Fuck an Denham Springs tonight while broadcast antennas, like those Willis, are not.