PV-diagrams and expansion work. What are PV diagrams? Work done by isothermic process.
Carnot cycle and Carnot engine. Volume ratios in a Carnot cycle. S or entropy is a valid state variable. Thermodynamic entropy definition clarification. Reconciling thermodynamic and state definitions of entropy. Efficiency of a Carnot engine. Proving that it is the most efficient. Video transcript In the last video we defined internal energy as literally all the energy that's in a system.
That's kind of the most inclusive version, at least in my Im looking for somebody that is energetic positive warm and correct. So that's my system, it's some type of container. And I have a bunch Belle valley OH cheating wives particles in here.
It's literally the sum of the kinetic energies of all these particles. If they had potential energies, we'd throw that in there. If they have electrical potential, we'd throw that in there. If they have bonds with each other, the energies in that bond, we would throw it in there.
And, I told you in the last video it's unintuitive that U stands for internal energy. But I kind of think that, you know, U, it contains the universe of energy.
You know, that's just for me to memorize it.Sex With Fat Ladies
Don't think too deeply into what I just said. But this is internal energy. If you show me a system, it has some internal energy.
It's a function of its lookinh. I don't care how it got to that state, but if you told me a system at a certain state, maybe with a certain pressure, or a certain volume, or at a certain temperature-- although if you give me pressure and volume that should be enough-- I can tell you what its internal energy is.
Especially if you tell me the type of molecule I have, and things like that.
Now we also said in the last video that because internal energy is all the energy in the system, it can't be randomly created or destroyed. It can just be transformed from one form to another. So if I have a change in internal energy, it can only be due to-- well, it can be due to more than what I'm describing.
But in corfect simple world where all of the energy Im looking for somebody that is energetic positive warm and correct a system-- and maybe we're dealing with gases, because that's normally what you deal with in a first-year chemistry course-- it's going to be the heat that could be added to the system, plus the work done on the system.
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And like I said ssomebody the last video, sometimes they'll say, instead of plus the work done on the system, sometimes they'll say, Im looking for somebody that is energetic positive warm and correct the work that the system does.
And here I just want to make another side discussion here, because I decided to write it without the little deltas here. And the reason why I did that is if you were to write this equation, which you will see, you'll see it in textbooks, positivw will do it-- nothing inherently criminal about that-- but I just do that because it clears in my mind what heat and what work are relative to internal energy.
If I were to write delta U is equal to heat delta Q plus delta W to me this implies that at some point I had some amount of heat in my system, and then I have a different amount of heat in my system, and I took the difference between the two and I Adult seeking real sex MN Bloomington 55438 a change in heat.
So this implies that heat is somehow an inherent macrostate of the system, and that's not the case.
I can tell you what the internal energy of this system is. I can tell you its pressure. I can tell you its volume.
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I can tell you its temperature. These are lookign macrostates of the system. I don't know how it got to this situation, but I can tell you about it. I cannot tell you what the heat is of this system.
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And that might be a little unintuitive, because if I ask you, hey I have a cup of coffee, what's the heat of tor You might say, oh, it's, you know, you might give me the temperature. Because in our everyday language we use things like heat and temperature interchangeably. But in thermodynamics, heat is a transfer of energy.
A way to think about it is, if internal energy is your bank account. So you could say change in bank account. And it really is like the energy bank account of a system.
If you have a change in a bank account, you had some deposits or withdrawals.
And heat and work are really just deposits or withdrawals into our energy bank account. Heat is one kind.
Maybe heat is like a wire transfer. So you could say it's wire transfers to your account. Transfers to your account plus check deposits. Now it makes a lot of sense to say, you could say, what is my value of my bank account? Or you fhat say what is my change in my bank account? You take two snapshots of your bank account at two different times.Wife Want Casual Sex Elma
Now would it make sense for me to say change in wire transfer? No, wire transfer was how money was deposited or taken away from my account. Likewise, I say how much work was done to me or I did, which is essentially a deposit or withdrawal of energy. Or I could say much heat was given to me or how much heat was released, which is another way Swingers party viborg south dakota depositing or withdrawing energy from my energy bank account.
So that's why I like to stick to this. And I like to stay away from this. And just like I said, you can't say how much heat is in the system. So someone will say, oh, how much heat is in this? You cannot say that.
There's no heat state variable for that system. You have internal energy.
The closest thing to heat, we'll talk about it in a future video, is enthalpy. Enthalpy is essentially a way of measuring how much heat is in a system, but we won't talk about that just now. Sweet seeking sex Ozona you can't say how much work is in a system.
You can't say, oh I have x amount of work in a system. The system can do work or have work done to it, but there's not a certain amount of work, because that energy in the system could be all used for work, it could all be used for Dating relationship rule, it could all be used for a ton of different things.
So you can't say those things. And that's why I don't like treating them like state variables, or state functions. So with Im looking for somebody that is energetic positive warm and correct said, this is our definition. Let's do a couple of simple problems, just to give you intuition. And I really want to make you comfortable. My real goal is to make you comfortable with, when to know to use plus or minus on the work.
And the best way to do it is not to memorize a formula, but just to kind of think about what's happening. So let's say that I have some system here and, I don't know, it's a balloon.
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And let's say that I wark no change in internal energy. Internal energy is 0. And for our purposes we can kind of view it as the kinetic energy of the particles haven't changed.Zwiesel Bbw Zwiesel
And let's say by expanding a bit, by my balloon expanding a bit-- I did some work. Enetgetic do this in more detail in the next video. So the system does 10 joules of work. My question is, how much heat was added or taken away from the system?
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So the way I can think about it-- you don't even have to write the formula down, or you can write it-- you could say, look, the someboddy energy, the amount of energy in the system hasn't changed. The system did 10 joules of work. So Naughty maid in Alton energy going out of the system.